shall


shall
shall/should
КОММЕНТАРИЙ:shall / should
Сначала несколько примеров из оригинальной англоязычной нормативно-технической документации:
1. Within this Specification:
a. "Shall"is used to indicate that a provision is mandatory.
b. "Should"is used to indicate that a provision is not mandatory, but recommended as good practice.
2. Shall:Indicates a mandatory requirement.
Should:Indicates a suggested means of accomplishment.
3."Shallhas been used only when application of a procedure is mandatory.
"Should'has been used only when application of a procedure is recommended.
4.Shall: A term which indicates that a provision is a Code requirement (see alsoshould/
Should: A term which indicates that a provision is recommended as good practice but is not a Code requirement (see alsoshall/)
5.Shall: Indicates a mandatory or required action (seeshould. Should: Indicates a preferred or recommended action (seeshall/
6.Shall:Indicates a mandatory requirement. Should:Indicates a preferred (but not mandatory) course of action.
7. Mandatory rules of this Code are characterized by the use of the word "shall". If a rule is of an advisory nature it is indicated by the use of the word "should"or is stated as a recommendation.
8. The word "shall"indicates a mandatory provision and "should"indicates a recommended or advisory provision.
И так далее, и тому подобное. Из приведенных здесь (и десятков других известных составителю) примеров со всей очевидностью вытекает, что
shall«сильнее», чем should. Переводчики, не знакомые с этим обстоятельством, столкнувшись с глаголом shall, переводят его то будущим временем, то с использованием формы долженствования. И то, и другое неверно, поскольку shall это - нечто, не подлежащее обсуждению. Это - данность. Это, как говорил Остап Бендер, - «медицинский факт». И на русский язык этот глагол переводится обычным изъявительным наклонением с использованием глагола либо в возвратной форме, либо в третьем лице множественного числа. Например: «Работа в замкнутых или ограниченных пространствах производится сварщиком под контролем наблюдающего...» (а не будет производиться) или «Нормы дымности дизелей, тракторов и машин конкретных марок устанавливают в зависимости от условного расхода воздуха» (а не должны устанавливаться).

English-Russian dictionary of scientific and technical difficulties vocabulary. . 2007.

Смотреть что такое "shall" в других словарях:

  • Shall — Shall, v. i. & auxiliary. [imp. {Should}.] [OE. shal, schal, imp. sholde, scholde, AS. scal, sceal, I am obliged, imp. scolde, sceolde, inf. sculan; akin to OS. skulan, pres. skal, imp. skolda, D. zullen, pres. zal, imp. zoude, zou, OHG. solan,… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • shall — [ ʃəl, strong ʃæl ] modal verb *** Shall is usually followed by an infinitive without to : I shall explain everything later. Sometimes it is used without a following infinitive: I have never visited Africa and probably never shall. Shall does not …   Usage of the words and phrases in modern English

  • shall — verb as required will, by compulsion will, by imperative will, mandatorily will, obligatorily will associated concepts: shall be lawful, shall be legal, shall become, shall give, shall have, shall not, shall perform, shall work Burton s Legal… …   Law dictionary

  • shall — W1S3 [ʃəl strong ʃæl] modal v negative short form shan t [: Old English; Origin: sceal] 1.) shall I/we...? spoken used to make a suggestion, or ask a question that you want the other person to decide about ▪ Shall I open the window? ▪ Shall we… …   Dictionary of contemporary English

  • shall — [shal] v.aux. pt.should [ME schal, pl. schullen < OE sceal, inf. sceolan, akin to Ger sollen < IE base * (s)kel , to be indebted > Lith skeliù, to owe] 1. used in the first person to indicate simple future time [I shall probably go… …   English World dictionary

  • shall — ► MODAL VERB (3rd sing. present shall) 1) (in the first person) expressing the future tense. 2) expressing a strong assertion or intention. 3) expressing an instruction or command. 4) used in questions indicating offers or suggestions. USAGE… …   English terms dictionary

  • shall — (v.) O.E. sceal I owe/he owes, will have to, ought to, must (infinitive sculan, pt. sceolde), a common Germanic preterite present verb, from P.Gmc. *skal , *skul (Cf. O.S. sculan, O.N., Swed. skola, M.Du. sullen, O.H.G. solan, Ger. sollen, Goth.… …   Etymology dictionary

  • shall — [[t]ʃəl, STRONG ʃæl[/t]] ♦♦ (Shall is a modal verb. It is used with the base form of a verb.) 1) MODAL You use shall with I and we in questions in order to make offers or suggestions, or to ask for advice. Shall I get the keys?... I bought some… …   English dictionary

  • shall */*/*/ — strong UK [ʃæl] / US weak UK [ʃəl] / US modal verb Summary: Shall is usually followed by an infinitive without to : I shall explain everything later. Sometimes it is used without a following infinitive: I have never visited America and probably… …   English dictionary

  • shall — /shal/; unstressed /sheuhl/, auxiliary v., pres. sing. 1st pers. shall, 2nd shall or (Archaic) shalt, 3rd shall, pres. pl. shall; past sing. 1st pers. should, 2nd …   Universalium

  • shall */*/*/ — weak [ʃəl] , strong [ʃæl] modal verb summary: ■ Shall is usually followed by an infinitive without ‘to : I shall explain everything later. Sometimes it is used without a following infinitive: I have never visited America and probably never shall …   Dictionary for writing and speaking English

Книги

Другие книги по запросу «shall» >>


Поделиться ссылкой на выделенное

Прямая ссылка:
Нажмите правой клавишей мыши и выберите «Копировать ссылку»

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.